Oldest Musical Instrument’s 4 Notes
Matches 4 of Do, Re, Mi Scale
source of image and article:
Well of course there would be one!
The following correspondence between Bob Fink the author of the article and David Halperin can be found at this link here:
Here is a letter sent to Bob Fink from David Halperin I just happened to notice the time stamp and issue #2 suggests I need to find out more.
(I love coincidences regarding the number 37)
Date: Thu, 6 Mar 1997 00:37:50
From: “Halperin David, Dr.” Dept of Musicology, Tel Aviv University email@example.com
To: Bob Fink
Your letter came today, and I immediately read the flute article. Impressive, but I have some comments, doubts and questions; what follows is more or less in the order in which you present your findings.
1) How do we know it’s [a remnant of] a flute? Dr. Turk is, I assume, a fine and respected paleontologist; but you know well that there are fine and respected scholars in many areas who think that their common sense is enough for making musicological decisions. Has Turk suggested that the femur can only be a flute? or does he consider that it may be [I’m sticking my neck out here, as I am not a paleontologist or an archeologist], say, an ornamental necklace piece which had some insets in the “flute” holes? (I know personally of a case where an archeologist with whom I’m acquainted mistook a portrayal in a mosaic floor of the 6th-7th cy AD to be that of a man smoking pot, where it turns out to be an oboe [or chalumeau or aulos] player!)
2) Your assumption #2 — a predisposition in man toward equality or symmetry in measurements — seems to me to be highly speculative. I have seen constructions in archeological sites in Israel where IN-equality is prevalent, probably due to pecunious or lazy use of at-hand building materials: naturally occurring stones and the like. And if you’re looking for biological rationales (you cite the 5+5 finger one), how about the left-brain-right-brain asymmetry, or the right/left-handedness of us all? The “predisposition” you posit may in fact be just an expression of the development of esthetic ideals, for which we have almost no documentation earlier than historical times.
3) The inequality of our musical scale intervals is indeed a fact, but not a universal one. Think of pelog scales; or of the Yugoslavian fipple-flutes with holes spaced according to where the fingers fall rather than according to a preexistent scale, a sort of conceptual symmetry (finger = finger).
Finally: yes, the hole positions really are “consistent with 4 notes of the minor diatonic scale”. My point is simply that they may be just as consistent with some other segment of some other scale. But I am ready to be convinced!
P.S.: I have not yet studied the Archaeologia Musicalis article, but one thing I did notice was your mention at the end of drones (bagpipes and bi-aulos). I don’t think that the sounds produced could be called “harmonies” in any acceptable sense.
Clearly I need to find out more about the controversy regarding the ASYMMETRY vs. SYMMETRY in the placement of the holes.
Below is a partial response.
March 15, 1997
To: David Halperin From: Bob Fink
YOUR MATHYour math was done based on an earlier length estimate. I apologize for not sooner sending you an up-to-date draft to use. The new figure for the length of the bone is 37cm (plus one cm and minus 5 cm). I believe these new figures were in the summary I sent to you. You probably should have read that before doing your calculations. That 37(+1/-5)cm is as accurate as we can get.
Your results will be completely thrown off by the 37cm length — but as I explained in that original draft (or didn’t I?) the 41.6cm length is the effective “AIR-column” length, not actual bone length needed. Actual flute material (any flute) need not be as long as the air column because part of the air-column extends out into the air at the open end of a hole or at flute’s end. Thus a shorter flute length sustains an operating air-column that is longer than the flute. (Check Helmholtz; Sir James Jeans; many flute-makers whom I have consulted).
OTHER SCALESYou yourself already wrote: “I agree that there are extramusical reasons for our preferring anhemitonic pentatonic or diatonic scales, and these are not only rooted in acoustic properties of these scales but also in our psychological makeup…. Finally: yes, the hole positions really are ‘consistent with 4 notes of the minor diatonic scale’. My point is simply that they may be just as consistent with some other segment of some other scale.” (emph.added by Bob Fink)
And in the notes of the article written by Bob Fink I noted the following…
3. Hermann C. F. Helmholtz, On the Sensations of Tone (2nd English Ed.; New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1954), p. 17, passim.
In this work, Helmholtz also cites other ratios for the tunings of the third, sixth, seventh and the second. These tunings are close to each other, but have had wide historical usage. Some of these older standard tunings, if we used them, would actually make our findings even closer. It was long experience and scientific intervention (mathematics and acoustics) that led to the most prevalent standard ratios for notes of the scale, which we used in our “model” scale. Needless to say, Neanderthals had no benefit of this kind of reckoning.
At this time I just want to mention that those numbers 3 – 6 – 7 – 2 appear far too often in groupings in the patterns I have recognized. I am not making any conclusions, just noting the associations.
And of course wikipedia offers MORE not LESS controversy dividing the scholars regarding the Neanderthal Divje Babe flute.
-In 1995, Ivan Turk found an approximately 43,100 year-old  juvenile cave bear femur at the Divje Babe site, near a Mousterian hearth. Because it has characteristics of a flute, he has called it the “Neanderthal flute”. Whether it is actually a flute created by Neanderthals is a subject of debate.
-It has been suggested that it was made by Neanderthals, however according to Slovenian archeologist Brodar it was made by Cro-Magnon as an element of Central European Aurignacian.
-Alternative hypotheses notwithstanding, the artifact remains on prominent public display as a flute in the National Museum of Slovenia (Narodni Muzej Slovenije) in Ljubljana. The museum’s visitor leaflet maintains that manufacture by Neanderthals “is reliably proven”.
-According to Brodar, such holes are an element of Central European Aurignacian. They have been ascribed to the Cro-Magnon, modern human. According to Brodar, the Divje Babe flute is a product of modern human as well, but this has been disputed by other Slovene scholars.
And the controversy does not end.
Because we also have the work of the very very very controversial Barry Fell to offer in regards to FLUTES.
The following image and supporting text can be found in his controversial book Saga America.
Please note in the above images we have depictions of two kinds of flutes.
Both can be placed in the mouth.
One can be crafted from the bones of animals, and the other one is an erect penis.
wolf rolf ROFL
Btw did a wolf make those holes in femur bone of the cave bear – the Dijvi Babe Flute?
That has been proven too.
Can we find evidence of Egyptian god imagery with an erect penis?
Or among the Hopi in the 4 corners region of the USA?
The answer to both questions is yes.
Min is an Ancient Egyptian god whose cult originated in predynastic times (4th millennium BC).
He was represented in many different forms, but was often represented in male human form, shown with an erect penis which he holds in his left hand and an upheld right arm holding a flail.
As Khem or Min, he was the god of reproduction; as Khnum, he was the creator of all things, “the maker of gods and men”
Kokopelli is a fertility deity, usually depicted as a humpbacked flute player (often with feathers or antenna-like protrusions on his head), who has been venerated by some Native American cultures in the Southwestern United States. Like most fertility deities, Kokopelli presides over both childbirth and agriculture. He is also a trickster god and represents the spirit of music.
It is said that Kokopelli can be seen on the full and waning moon, much like the “rabbit on the moon”.
Many believe that Kokopelli was more than a trader, and more significantly, an important conveyor of information and trinkets from afar. As a Story Teller, par excellence, Kokopelli had the gift of languages with a formidable repertoire of body language storytelling skills to compliment his many talents.
Kokopelli is one of the most easily recognized figures found in the petroglyphs and pictographs of the Southwest. The earliest known petroglyph of the figure dates to about 1000 CE. The Spanish missionaries in the area convinced the Hopi craftsmen to usually omit the phallus from their representations of the figure. As with most kachinas, the Hopi Kokopelli was often represented by a human dancer. Kokopelli is a cottonwood sculpture often carved today.
In his domain over agriculture, Kokopelli’s flute-playing chases away the winter and brings about spring. Many tribes, such as the Zuni, also associate Kokopelli with the rains. He frequently appears with Paiyatamu, another flutist, in depictions of maize-grinding ceremonies. Some tribes say he carries seeds and babies on his back.
And then just for good ‘measure’ there were patterns I happened to notice on the Ishango Bone.
Can we connect the ‘bI6LE‘ code 13796 to the ISHango Bone?
Does ISH mean light?
ISH ISH became ISIS as one source suggests?
Did I mention that the film The Adventures of Robin Hood starring Errol Flynn was my favorite film as a child?
I probably watched it at least 37 times, most of the time it was in black and white because color tvs were rare when I was a child.
And lo and behold this Robin Hood Horse Bone measures 73 mm or about 3 inches.
The Robin Hood Cave Horse (previously known as the Ochre Horse) is a fragment of rib engraved with a horse‘s head, discovered in 1876, in the Robin Hood Cave in Creswell Crags, Derbyshire. It is the only piece of Upper Palaeolithicportable art showing an animal to have been found in Britain. It is now in the British Museum, but normally not on display. Between 7 February – 26 May 2013 it is displayed in the exhibition at the British Museum – Ice Age Art: Arrival of the Modern Mind
A replica of the artifact is displayed at the Creswell Crags Museum.
Creswell Crags is a limestonegorge on the border between Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire, England near the villages of Creswell, Whitwell and Elmton. The cliffs of the ravine contain several caves that were occupied during the last ice age, between around 43,000 and 10,000 years ago.
The caves contain occupation layers with evidence of flint tools from the Mousterian, proto-Solutrean, Creswellianand Maglemosiancultures. They were seasonally occupied by nomadic groups of people during the UpperPalaeolithic and Mesolithic periods. Evidence of Neolithic, Bronze Age, Roman and post-medieval activity has also been found there. The main phases of stone age occupation were at around 43,000 BC then in a period between 30,000 and 28,000 BC and then again around 10,000 BC.
Info and maps of the caves:
I just happened to note, i.e. I detected a pattern as suggested by the main phases of stone age occupation which occurred at around:
7 = 43,000
3 = 30,000
1 = 28,000
1 = 10,000
1137 = 1/137 is in fact known as alpha or the fine structure constant!
What can I say?
Some things ‘just is’.
Why do scholars run and hide from the patterns that have been laid down by the cosmos….what are they frightened of finding out…?